Electricity Sector

Eswatini's electricity is mainly supplied by the Eswatini Electricity Company ("EEC") established in terms of section 3 of the Eswatini Electricity Company Act, 2007 (Act No. 1 of 2007) ("EEC Act"). EEC is the successor to the Eswatini Electricity Board ("EEB") which was established in terms of the Electricity Act, 1963 (Act No. 10 of 1963). The Electricity Act, 2007 (Act No. 3 of 2007) repealed the Electricity Act, 1963. In terms of the EEC Act, EEC is supposed to operate under a licence issued by the Eswatini Energy Regulatory Authority ("ESERA") established in terms of the Energy Regulatory Act, 2007 (Act No. 2 of 2007) ("ER Act").

The electricity sector is dominated by EEC undertaking power generation, importation, transmission, distribution and supply. Other key players include co-generators from the sugar industry namely Ubombo Sugar limited (USL) and the Royal Swaziland Sugar Corporation (RSSC) which use bagasse and wood chips as fuel. USL has an installed capacity of 41.5 MW which is utilised for self-sufficiency and export to SEC. RSSC’s 65.5 MW generation is currently limited to self-consumption. The electricity industry structure and its envisaged transition is as shown below;

electricity generation in Eswatini


Electricity demand 221MW 2014

Installed Capacity

     Hydro - 60.4 MW
     Diesel – 9 MW

      Thermal – 40.5 MW
      Hydro – 1 MW

     Thermal – 65.5 MW
     Energy profile 2013/14
     Energy Sent out – 1554.6 GWh
     Local generation – 578 GWh
     Imports – 976.6 GWh
     Maximum demand – 221.2 MW

Electricity Access – 65%
     Urban – 84%
     Rural – 55%

Power is transmitted through 66kV, 132 kV and 400 kV transmission lines. The 400kV transmission line are owned by the Motraco Transmission Company. EEC has one third interest in the Motraco Transmission Company, registered in Mozambique. Motraco's principal role is the supply of energy to Mozal Aluminium Smelters in Mozambique and the wheeling of electric energy to the Electricidade de Mozambique, Eswatini Electricity Company and Eskom, South Africa.

Eswatini electrification rate of 65% (84% urban, 55% rural)

The electricity supply industry in Eswatini has undergone changes both from a policy and regulatory point of view. Issues such as the changing global trends towards liberalised energy markets; security of supply; achieving efficiencies; affordability; and access to electricity, amongst others, have introduced a change in the policy trajectory with regards to how Eswatini as a nation views electricity supply.

Overall, the electricity supply industry in Eswatini can be broadly defined as an industry in transition, informed both by policy imperatives and regulatory reform.